Good therapy is preceded by a good diagnosis. So, in order to achieve success, it is necessary to first give the diagnosis. The diagnosis of reading disorders must provide a detailed insight into the causals of the problem. For the better and more precise diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct various tests with psychodynamic agents. Procedures to help diagnose are the TRR (Differential Test) and UPC (Reading Problems), which provides insights into the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Other experts, such as logoped, defectologist, neurologist, ophthalmologist, etc., may also be involved in the examination. with its diagnostic tools.
The diagnosis of reading disorders, as well as the therapeutic procedures after it, is most often determined by the basic theoretical approach and the understanding of reading disorders. Defectological diagnosis is based on leximetry, which determines the level of development of reading or outburst in certain areas of reading functions. Defectologists break the clinical picture of dyslexia into the elements and search for them in the text that the child reads. A child reads an unknown text for 5 minutes, and the evaluation is done at the end of the reading. During reading, typical dyslexic elements are recorded such as: swapping, adding, rejecting voices and syllables. If these elements interfere with fluent or comprehensible reading, it’s about dyslexic reading. In addition to this analysis, there is a neuropsychological analysis. If she confirms that the CNS is undamaged, the diagnosis of developmental dyslexia is diagnosed. If reading disorders are associated with possible nerve damage, this is alexia
Logoped can using adequate tests that match the age of students. Some of these tests:
• Three-dimensional reading test. This test examines three important reading components: reading speed, accuracy and understanding of meaning.
• Testing the ability to read based on heavy text. This test contains text ten degrees of weight. The test is interrupted when the contents can not be monitored.
• Articulation test. The test examines the technical side of reading, speed and accuracy.
• Scale for assessing the disgraphyc of the manuscript.
If all the factors indicate internal developmental disorders, the diagnosis is: developmental dyslexia. In the case of a student who has been persistent in reading for a long time without satisfactory results, the diagnosis is: specific dyslexia. If the incompetence of reading is associated with some disorders such as low level of intelligence, lingual disorder, etc. the diagnosis should read: reading disorders, since they can not be published for themselves, but they are one of the symptoms of syndrome that complicates the normal learning process.
It should be noted that in the international classification of mental disorders and behavioral disorders, ICD-10, can be used F81- specific developmental disorders of school skills . That are the disorders in which normal skills of schooling are damaged from early stages of development. They are not the result of a lack of opportunity to learning, cerebral trauma or illness. These disorders are thought to arise from abnormalities in the cognitive process, which largely result from some form of biological dysfunction. Although these disorders are related to biological maturation, it does not mean that children with these disorders are at the lower boundary normal continuum, and therefore will, in time, “compensate” the lag.
In this category of specific developmental disorders of school skills include:
• F81.0 Specific reading disorder. The basic characteristic is the damage to the development of reading abilities that can not be explained by mental age, visual problems or inadequate education. Can be misunderstood understanding of read, recognition of read words, reading skills accentuating and performing tasks that require reading. When it comes to diagnosis, assessment is carried out on the basis of an individually applied standardized reading, accuracy and comprehension test. In the early stages of the learning of the alphabet letter, there may be difficulties in listing the alphabet, giving the appropriate names in letters, and giving simple rhymes to words, etc. Later errors can arise in loud reading such as omission, replacement, twist, or adding words or parts of the word, slow reading, twist words in sentences or letters in words, and even the inability to read it readily.
• F81.1 Specific spelling disorder. The main characteristic of the disorder is the specific and significant deterioration in the development of the ability to spelling, which can not be explained by intellectual retardation, visual problems or inadequate education.
• F81.2 Specific calculating disorder. The disorder is characterized by a specific damage to calculating skills that can not be explained by mental retardation or inadequate education. The deficit is mainly in the field of computational actions of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (less in the field of abstract mathematical abilities applied in algebra, trigonometry, and geometry).
• Other developmental disorders of school skills Therapy is a process that involves the ongoing planning and implementation of corrective work with continuous evaluation.
The fates of children with disabilities in reading are varied. In some cases, an individual solves his problem, for example, it ripens the certain functions, overcomes fear or aversion by reading, and there is a spontaneous improvement. In some individuals, the disorder is resistant to corrective attempts. In others, the problem is solved with the help of an expert. There are practically no formal education for this job. Some of the defectological professions (such as speech therapists) about the disorders of reading get the highest systematic knowledge during the course of the study, for example, doctors, psychologists and pedagogues, deal with these phenomena due to their own interest and the nature of the workplace.