An analysis of the types of errors in reading disorders offered the possibility of separating two basic neuropsychological categories of disorder. One is based on the dissociation between the preserved semantic reading component and the damaged phonological one. For example, a child can read the so-called. not-say but words for which it has the meaning. This type is called phonological dyslexia. The second type is based on the opposite pattern and is called semantic dyslexia.
According to the second division, dyslexia is divided into:
1. Dyslexia in which there is insufficient formation of oral speech. In these children, in addition to dyslexia, there are speech lingual problems that are milder than in children with special linguistic difficulties. These disturbances range from the minor difficulty to the weakness of understanding the relationship between the words in the sentence.
2. Dyslexia with insufficiently formed visual-spatial perception and orientation. In this form of dyslexia, oral speech can be very good, with some difficulty in memorizing traces, which is the basis of precisely the specificity of the perception of space and time. Thus, children with this type of dyslexia find it difficult to find time spatial traces. What happened before, and what after? What’s in the front space, and what’s behind it? It is difficult to follow the days of the week, the months of the year, or the order of the seasons. More difficult to adopt and verbalize spatial relationships left-right.
3. The combined form of dyslexia has equally represented elements of speech language difficulties as well as the specificity of spatial perception and orientation. The above types of dyslexia constitute the description of this syndrome in the broader sense of the word. What dyslexia describes in a narrower sense are the reading difficulties. They are more numerous and more stable in their appearance. This means that they can equally appear in shorter and longer words, in familiar, as well as in lesser-known words.
According to the second division, developmental and specific dyslexia is distinguished.
1. Developmental dyslexia. There are three reasons why some types of dyslexia are called “developmental”. The first reason is that these types of dyslexia stem from the slow psychomotor and speech-language development of a child. These include children who have suffered premature, natally or postnatal injuries. The second reason for the term “developmental dyslexia” derives from the therapeutic experience. All developmental dyslexia can be successfully corrected, provided that the student has sufficient intelligence. It is understood that the application of an adequate methodical procedure is necessary. Third, the pace of read-out will depend on the pace of maturation and psychomotor organization of those systems that make up the reading medium.
Developmental dyslexia includes the following:
a) Dyslexia caused by the immaturity of a psychomotor system whose cause is still not sufficiently defined.
b) Dysphasic dyslexia occurs as a consequence of a pathologically underdeveloped speech-language system. The main disadvantage is immaturity for the function of speech, and since reading is the translation of visual stimulation to speech, it is no wonder that this “translation” is disturbed and difficult.
c) Dyslexia caused by brain injuries due to minimal cerebral dysfunction.
2. Specific dyslexia is that dyslexia that is extremely difficult to overcome, even in addition to the best methods of training. And when success is achieved, the patient does not like to use the printed text, tries to get more information from an audible one. Specific dyslexia is usually hereditary because almost every family have someone who have difficulty reading.
In addition to these types, there is an ally. Aleksija is a complete loss, or a disorder of different intensity of previously acquired ability to read. Unlike dyslexia in children, alexia subsequently resulted in inability to read, which occurs as part of an adult’s aphasic syndrome.